Genetic Epidemiology, Psychiatric Genetics, Asthma Genetics and Statistical Genetics Laboratories investigate the pattern of disease in families, particularly identical and non-identical twins, to assess the relative importance of genes and environment in a variety of important health problems.
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30643258
TITLE
Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over 1 million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences.
ABSTRACT
Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.
DATE PUBLISHED
2019 Jan 14
HISTORY
PUBSTATUS PUBSTATUSDATE
received 2018/01/26
accepted 2018/11/07
entrez 2019/01/16 06:00
pubmed 2019/01/16 06:00
medline 2019/01/16 06:00
AUTHORS
NAME COLLECTIVENAME LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION AFFILIATIONINFO
Karlsson Linnér R Karlsson Linnér Richard R Department of Economics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. r.karlssonlinner@vu.nl.
Biroli P Biroli Pietro P Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Kong E Kong Edward E Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Meddens SFW Meddens S Fleur W SFW Department of Economics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Wedow R Wedow Robbee R Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Fontana MA Fontana Mark Alan MA Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA.
Lebreton M Lebreton Maël M Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Tino SP Tino Stephen P SP Department of Economics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Abdellaoui A Abdellaoui Abdel A Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Hammerschlag AR Hammerschlag Anke R AR Department of Complex Trait Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Nivard MG Nivard Michel G MG Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Okbay A Okbay Aysu A Department of Economics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Rietveld CA Rietveld Cornelius A CA Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Timshel PN Timshel Pascal N PN Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Trzaskowski M Trzaskowski Maciej M Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Vlaming R Vlaming Ronald de R Department of Economics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Zünd CL Zünd Christian L CL Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Bao Y Bao Yanchun Y Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.
Buzdugan L Buzdugan Laura L Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Caplin AH Caplin Ann H AH Stuyvesant High School, New York, NY, USA.
Chen CY Chen Chia-Yen CY Psychiatric & Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
Eibich P Eibich Peter P Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
Fontanillas P Fontanillas Pierre P Research, 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA.
Gonzalez JR Gonzalez Juan R JR CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
Joshi PK Joshi Peter K PK Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Karhunen V Karhunen Ville V Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Kleinman A Kleinman Aaron A Research, 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA.
Levin RZ Levin Remy Z RZ Department of Economics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Lill CM Lill Christina M CM Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Lübeck Interdisciplinary Platform for Genome Analytics, Institutes of Neurogenetics & Cardiogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
Meddens GA Meddens Gerardus A GA Team Loyalty BV, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands.
Muntané G Muntané Gerard G Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Reus, Spain.
Sanchez-Roige S Sanchez-Roige Sandra S Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Rooij FJV Rooij Frank J van FJV Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Taskesen E Taskesen Erdogan E Department of Complex Trait Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Wu Y Wu Yang Y Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Zhang F Zhang Futao F Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
23and Me Research Team
eQTLgen Consortium
International Cannabis Consortium
Social Science Genetic Association Consortium
Auton A Auton Adam A Research, 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA.
Boardman JD Boardman Jason D JD Department of Sociology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
Clark DW Clark David W DW Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Conlin A Conlin Andrew A Department of Economics and Finance, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Dolan CC Dolan Conor C CC Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Fischbacher U Fischbacher Urs U Thurgau Institute of Economics, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland.
Groenen PJF Groenen Patrick J F PJF Department of Econometrics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Harris KM Harris Kathleen Mullan KM Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Hasler G Hasler Gregor G Unit of Psychiatry Research, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.
Hofman A Hofman Albert A Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Ikram MA Ikram Mohammad A MA Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Jain S Jain Sonia S Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Karlsson R Karlsson Robert R Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kessler RC Kessler Ronald C RC Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Kooyman M Kooyman Maarten M SURFsara, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
MacKillop J MacKillop James J Homewood Research Institute, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Männikkö M Männikkö Minna M Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Morcillo-Suarez C Morcillo-Suarez Carlos C Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
McQueen MB McQueen Matthew B MB Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
Schmidt KM Schmidt Klaus M KM Department of Economics, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Smart MC Smart Melissa C MC Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.
Sutter M Sutter Matthias M Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
Thurik AR Thurik A Roy AR Montpellier Business School, Montpellier, France.
Uitterlinden AG Uitterlinden André G AG Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
White J White Jon J UCL Genetics Institute, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK.
Wit H Wit Harriet de H Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Yang J Yang Jian J Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Bertram L Bertram Lars L School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
Boomsma DI Boomsma Dorret I DI Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Esko T Esko Tõnu T Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
Fehr E Fehr Ernst E Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Hinds DA Hinds David A DA Research, 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA.
Johannesson M Johannesson Magnus M Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kumari M Kumari Meena M Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.
Laibson D Laibson David D Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Magnusson PKE Magnusson Patrik K E PKE Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Meyer MN Meyer Michelle N MN Center for Translational Bioethics and Health Care Policy, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA.
Navarro A Navarro Arcadi A Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Palmer AA Palmer Abraham A AA Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Pers TH Pers Tune H TH Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Posthuma D Posthuma Danielle D Department of Clinical Genetics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Schunk D Schunk Daniel D Department of Economics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.
Stein MB Stein Murray B MB Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Svento R Svento Rauli R Department of Economics and Finance, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Tiemeier H Tiemeier Henning H Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Timmers PRHJ Timmers Paul R H J PRHJ Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Turley P Turley Patrick P Behavioral and Health Genomics Center, Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Ursano RJ Ursano Robert J RJ Department of Psychiatry, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Wagner GG Wagner Gert G GG Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
Wilson JF Wilson James F JF MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Gratten J Gratten Jacob J Mater Medical Research Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
Lee JJ Lee James J JJ Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Cesarini D Cesarini David D Department of Economics, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
Benjamin DJ Benjamin Daniel J DJ National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Koellinger PD Koellinger Philipp D PD German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Beauchamp JP Beauchamp Jonathan P JP Department of Economics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. jonathan.pierre.beauchamp@gmail.com.
INVESTIGATORS
LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION
Agee Michelle M
Alipanahi Babak B
Bell Robert K RK
Bryc Katarzyna K
Elson Sarah L SL
Furlotte Nicholas A NA
Huber Karen E KE
Litterman Nadia K NK
McCreight Jennifer C JC
McIntyre Matthew H MH
Mountain Joanna L JL
Northover Carrie A M CAM
Pitts Steven J SJ
Sathirapongsasuti J Fah JF
Sazonova Olga V OV
Shelton Janie F JF
Shringarpure Suyash S
Tian Chao C
Tung Joyce Y JY
Vacic Vladimir V
Wilson Catherine H CH
Agbessi Mawussé M
Ahsan Habibul H
Alves Isabel I
Andiappan Anand A
Awadalla Philip P
Battle Alexis A
Beutner Frank F
Jan Bonder Marc M
Boomsma Dorret I DI
Christiansen Mark M
Claringbould Annique A
Deelen Patrick P
Esko Tõnu T
Favé Marie-Julie MJ
Franke Lude L
Frayling Timothy T
Gharib Sina A SA
Gibson Gregory G
Heijmans Bastiaan B
Hemani Gibran G
Jansen Rick R
Kähönen Mika M
Kalnapenkis Anette A
Kasela Silva S
Kettunen Johannes J
Kim Yungil Y
Kirsten Holger H
Kovacs Peter P
Krohn Knut K
Kronberg-Guzman Jaanika J
Kukushkina Viktorija V
Kutalik Zoltan Z
Lee Bernett B
Lehtimäki Terho T
Loeffler Markus M
Marigorta Urko M UM
Metspalu Andres A
Milani Lili L
Montgomery Grant W GW
Müller-Nurasyid Martina M
Nauck Matthias M
Nivard Michel G MG
Penninx Brenda B
Perola Markus M
Pervjakova Natalia N
Pierce Brandon B
Powell Joseph J
Prokisch Holger H
Psaty Bruce M BM
Raitakari Olli O
Ring Susan S
Ripatti Samuli S
Rotzchke Olaf O
Rüeger Sina S
Saha Ashis A
Scholz Markus M
Schramm Katharina K
Seppälä Ilkka I
Stumvoll Michael M
Sullivan Patrick P
Hoen Peter-Bram T PT
Teumer Alexander A
Thiery Joachim J
Tong Lin L
Tönjes Anke A
Dongen Jenny van JV
Meurs Joyce van JV
Verlouw Joost J
Visscher Peter M PM
Völker Uwe U
Võsa Urmo U
Westra Harm-Jan HJ
Yaghootkar Hanieh H
Yang Jian J
Zeng Biao B
Zhang Futao F
Okbay Aysu A
Beauchamp Jonathan P JP
Fontana Mark Alan MA
Lee James J JJ
Pers Tune H TH
Rietveld Cornelius A CA
Turley Patrick P
Chen Guo-Bo GB
Emilsson Valur V
Meddens S Fleur W SFW
Oskarsson Sven S
Pickrell Joseph K JK
Thom Kevin K
Timshel Pascal P
de Vlaming Ronald R
Abdellaoui Abdel A
Ahluwalia Tarunveer S TS
Bacelis Jonas J
Baumbach Clemens C
Bjornsdottir Gyda G
Brandsma Johannes H JH
Concas Maria Pina MP
Derringer Jaime J
Furlotte Nicholas A NA
Galesloot Tessel E TE
Girotto Giorgia G
Gupta Richa R
Hall Leanne M LM
Harris Sarah E SE
Hofer Edith E
Horikoshi Momoko M
Huffman Jennifer E JE
Kaasik Kadri K
Kalafati Ioanna P IP
Karlsson Robert R
Kong Augustine A
Lahti Jari J
Lee Sven J van der SJV
de Leeuw Christiaan C
Lind Penelope A PA
Lindgren Karl-Oskar KO
Liu Tian T
Mangino Massimo M
Marten Jonathan J
Mihailov Evelin E
Miller Michael B MB
Most Peter J van der PJV
Oldmeadow Christopher C
Payton Antony A
Pervjakova Natalia N
Peyrot Wouter J WJ
Qian Yong Y
Raitakari Olli O
Rueedi Rico R
Salvi Erika E
Schmidt Börge B
Schraut Katharina E KE
Shi Jianxin J
Smith Albert V AV
Poot Raymond A RA
Pourcain Beate St BS
Teumer Alexander A
Thorleifsson Gudmar G
Verweij Niek N
Vuckovic Dragana D
Wellmann Juergen J
Westra Harm-Jan HJ
Yang Jingyun J
Zhao Wei W
Zhu Zhihong Z
Alizadeh Behrooz Z BZ
Amin Najaf N
Bakshi Andrew A
Baumeister Sebastian E SE
Biino Ginevra G
Bønnelykke Klaus K
Boyle Patricia A PA
Campbell Harry H
Cappuccio Francesco P FP
Davies Gail G
De Neve Jan-Emmanuel JE
Deloukas Panos P
Demuth Ilja I
Ding Jun J
Eibich Peter P
Eisele Lewin L
Eklund Niina N
Evans David M DM
Faul Jessica D JD
Feitosa Mary F MF
Forstner Andreas J AJ
Gandin Ilaria I
Gunnarsson Bjarni B
Halldórsson Bjarni V BV
Harris Tamara B TB
Heath Andrew C AC
Hocking Lynne J LJ
Holliday Elizabeth G EG
Homuth Georg G
Horan Michael A MA
Hottenga Jouke-Jan JJ
de Jager Philip L PL
Joshi Peter K PK
Jugessur Astanand A
Kaakinen Marika A MA
Kähönen Mika M
Kanoni Stavroula S
Keltigangas-Järvinen Liisa L
Kiemeney Lambertus A L M LALM
Kolcic Ivana I
Koskinen Seppo S
Kraja Aldi T AT
Kroh Martin M
Kutalik Zoltan Z
Latvala Antti A
Launer Lenore J LJ
Lebreton Maël P MP
Levinson Douglas F DF
Lichtenstein Paul P
Lichtner Peter P
Liewald David C M DCM
Loukola Anu A
Madden Pamela A PA
Mägi Reedik R
Mäki-Opas Tomi T
Marioni Riccardo E RE
Marques-Vidal Pedro P
Meddens Gerardus A GA
McMahon George G
Meisinger Christa C
Meitinger Thomas T
Milaneschi Yusplitri Y
Milani Lili L
Montgomery Grant W GW
Myhre Ronny R
Nelson Christopher P CP
Nyholt Dale R DR
Ollier William E R WER
Palotie Aarno A
Paternoster Lavinia L
Pedersen Nancy L NL
Petrovic Katja E KE
Porteous David J DJ
Räikkönen Katri K
Ring Susan M SM
Robino Antonietta A
Rostapshova Olga O
Rudan Igor I
Rustichini Aldo A
Salomaa Veikko V
Sanders Alan R AR
Sarin Antti-Pekka AP
Schmidt Helena H
Scott Rodney J RJ
Smith Blair H BH
Smith Jennifer A JA
Staessen Jan A JA
Steinhagen-Thiessen Elisabeth E
Strauch Konstantin K
Terracciano Antonio A
Tobin Martin D MD
Ulivi Sheila S
Vaccargiu Simona S
Quaye Lydia L
Rooij Frank J van FJV
Venturini Cristina C
Vinkhuyzen Anna A E AAE
Völker Uwe U
Völzke Henry H
Vonk Judith M JM
Vozzi Diego D
Waage Johannes J
Ware Erin B EB
Willemsen Gonneke G
Attia John R JR
Bennett David A DA
Berger Klaus K
Bertram Lars L
Bisgaard Hans H
Boomsma Dorret I DI
Borecki Ingrid B IB
Bültmann Ute U
Chabris Christopher F CF
Cucca Francesco F
Cusi Daniele D
Deary Ian J IJ
Dedoussis George V GV
Duijn Cornelia M van CMV
Eriksson Johan G JG
Franke Barbara B
Franke Lude L
Gasparini Paolo P
Gejman Pablo V PV
Gieger Christian C
Grabe Hans-Jörgen HJ
Gratten Jacob J
Groenen Patrick J F PJF
Gudnason Vilmundur V
Harst Pim van der PV
Hayward Caroline C
Hinds David A DA
Hoffmann Wolfgang W
Hyppönen Elina E
Iacono William G WG
Jacobsson Bo B
Järvelin Marjo-Riitta MR
Jöckel Karl-Heinz KH
Kaprio Jaakko J
Kardia Sharon L R SLR
Lehtimäki Terho T
Lehrer Steven F SF
Magnusson Patrik K E PKE
Martin Nicholas G NG
McGue Matt M
Metspalu Andres A
Pendleton Neil N
Penninx Brenda B
Perola Markus M
Pirastu Nicola N
Pirastu Mario M
Polasek Ozren O
Posthuma Danielle D
Power Christine C
Province Michael A MA
Samani Nilesh J NJ
Schlessinger David D
Schmidt Reinhold R
Sørensen Thorkild I A TIA
Spector Tim D TD
Stefansson Kari K
Thorsteinsdottir Unnur U
Thurik A Roy AR
Timpson Nicholas J NJ
Tiemeier Henning H
Tung Joyce Y JY
Uitterlinden André G AG
Vitart Veronique V
Vollenweider Peter P
Weir David R DR
Wilson James F JF
Wright Alan F AF
Conley Dalton C DC
Krueger Robert F RF
Smith George Davey GD
Hofman Albert A
Laibson David I DI
Medland Sarah E SE
Meyer Michelle N MN
Yang Jian J
Johannesson Magnus M
Visscher Peter M PM
Esko Tõnu T
Koellinger Philipp D PD
Cesarini David D
Benjamin Daniel J DJ
JOURNAL
VOLUME:
ISSUE:
TITLE: Nature genetics
ISOABBREVIATION: Nat. Genet.
YEAR: 2019
MONTH: Jan
DAY: 14
MEDLINEDATE:
SEASON:
CITEDMEDIUM: Internet
ISSN: 1546-1718
ISSNTYPE: Electronic
MEDLINE JOURNAL
MEDLINETA: Nat Genet
COUNTRY: United States
ISSNLINKING: 1061-4036
NLMUNIQUEID: 9216904
PUBLICATION TYPE
PUBLICATIONTYPE TEXT
Journal Article
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