Genetic Epidemiology, Psychiatric Genetics, Asthma Genetics and Statistical Genetics Laboratories investigate the pattern of disease in families, particularly identical and non-identical twins, to assess the relative importance of genes and environment in a variety of important health problems.
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PMID
27225129
TITLE
Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.
ABSTRACT
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
DATE PUBLISHED
2016 May 26
HISTORY
PUBSTATUS PUBSTATUSDATE
received 2015/06/24
accepted 2016/03/16
aheadofprint 2016/05/11
entrez 2016/05/27 06:00
pubmed 2016/05/27 06:00
medline 2016/05/27 06:00
pmc-release 2016/11/26 00:00
AUTHORS
NAME COLLECTIVENAME LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION AFFILIATIONINFO
Okbay A
Beauchamp JP
Fontana MA
Lee JJ
Pers TH
Rietveld CA
Turley P
Chen GB
Emilsson V
Meddens SF
Oskarsson S
Pickrell JK
Thom K
Timshel P
de Vlaming R
Abdellaoui A
Ahluwalia TS
Bacelis J
Baumbach C
Bjornsdottir G
Brandsma JH
Pina Concas M
Derringer J
Furlotte NA
Galesloot TE
Girotto G
Gupta R
Hall LM
Harris SE
Hofer E
Horikoshi M
Huffman JE
Kaasik K
Kalafati IP
Karlsson R
Kong A
Lahti J
van der Lee SJ
deLeeuw C
Lind PA
Lindgren KO
Liu T
Mangino M
Marten J
Mihailov E
Miller MB
van der Most PJ
Oldmeadow C
Payton A
Pervjakova N
Peyrot WJ
Qian Y
Raitakari O
Rueedi R
Salvi E
Schmidt B
Schraut KE
Shi J
Smith AV
Poot RA
St Pourcain B
Teumer A
Thorleifsson G
Verweij N
Vuckovic D
Wellmann J
Westra HJ
Yang J
Zhao W
Zhu Z
Alizadeh BZ
Amin N
Bakshi A
Baumeister SE
Biino G
Bonnelykke K
Boyle PA
Campbell H
Cappuccio FP
Davies G
De Neve JE
Deloukas P
Demuth I
Ding J
Eibich P
Eisele L
Eklund N
Evans DM
Faul JD
Feitosa MF
Forstner AJ
Gandin I
Gunnarsson B
Halldorsson BV
Harris TB
Heath AC
Hocking LJ
Holliday EG
Homuth G
Horan MA
Hottenga JJ
de Jager PL
Joshi PK
Jugessur A
Kaakinen MA
Kahonen M
Kanoni S
Keltigangas-Jarvinen L
Kiemeney LA
Kolcic I
Koskinen S
Kraja AT
Kroh M
Kutalik Z
Latvala A
Launer LJ
Lebreton MP
Levinson DF
Lichtenstein P
Lichtner P
Liewald DC
LifeLines Cohort Study
Loukola A
Madden PA
Magi R
Maki-Opas T
Marioni RE
Marques-Vidal P
Meddens GA
McMahon G
Meisinger C
Meitinger T
Milaneschi Y
Milani L
Montgomery GW
Myhre R
Nelson CP
Nyholt DR
Ollier WE
Palotie A
Paternoster L
Pedersen NL
Petrovic KE
Porteous DJ
Raikkonen K
Ring SM
Robino A
Rostapshova O
Rudan I
Rustichini A
Salomaa V
Sanders AR
Sarin AP
Schmidt H
Scott RJ
Smith BH
Smith JA
Staessen JA
Steinhagen-Thiessen E
Strauch K
Terracciano A
Tobin MD
Ulivi S
Vaccargiu S
Quaye L
van Rooij FJ
Venturini C
Vinkhuyzen AA
Volker U
Volzke H
Vonk JM
Vozzi D
Waage J
Ware EB
Willemsen G
Attia JR
Bennett DA
Berger K
Bertram L
Bisgaard H
Boomsma DI
Borecki IB
Bultmann U
Chabris CF
Cucca F
Cusi D
Deary IJ
Dedoussis GV
van Duijn CM
Eriksson JG
Franke B
Franke L
Gasparini P
Gejman PV
Gieger C
Grabe HJ
Gratten J
Groenen PJ
Gudnason V
van der Harst P
Hayward C
Hinds DA
Hoffmann W
Hypponen E
Iacono WG
Jacobsson B
Jarvelin MR
Jockel KH
Kaprio J
Kardia SL
Lehtimaki T
Lehrer SF
Magnusson PK
Martin NG
McGue M
Metspalu A
Pendleton N
Penninx BW
Perola M
Pirastu N
Pirastu M
Polasek O
Posthuma D
Power C
Province MA
Samani NJ
Schlessinger D
Schmidt R
Sorensen TI
Spector TD
Stefansson K
Thorsteinsdottir U
Thurik AR
Timpson NJ
Tiemeier H
Tung JY
Uitterlinden AG
Vitart V
Vollenweider P
Weir DR
Wilson JF
Wright AF
Conley DC
Krueger RF
Davey Smith G
Hofman A
Laibson DI
Medland SE
Meyer MN
Yang J
Johannesson M
Visscher PM
Esko T
Koellinger PD
Cesarini D
Benjamin DJ
INVESTIGATORS
LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION
Alizadeh Behrooz Z BZ
de Boer Rudolf A RA
Boezen H Marike HM
Bruinenberg Marcel M
Franke Lude L
van der Harst Pim P
Hillege Hans L HL
van der Klauw Melanie M MM
Navis Gerjan G
Ormel Johan J
Postma Dirkje S DS
Rosmalen Judith G M JG
Slaets Joris P JP
Snieder Harold H
Stolk Ronald P RP
Wolffenbuttel Bruce H R BH
Wijmenga Cisca C
JOURNAL
VOLUME: 533
ISSUE: 7604
TITLE: Nature
ISOABBREVIATION: Nature
YEAR: 2016
MONTH: May
DAY: 26
MEDLINEDATE:
SEASON:
CITEDMEDIUM: Internet
ISSN: 1476-4687
ISSNTYPE: Electronic
MEDLINE JOURNAL
MEDLINETA: Nature
COUNTRY: England
ISSNLINKING: 0028-0836
NLMUNIQUEID: 0410462
PUBLICATION TYPE
PUBLICATIONTYPE TEXT
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
COMMENTS AND CORRECTIONS
GRANTS
GRANTID AGENCY COUNTRY
P01 AG005842 NIA NIH HHS United States
P01-AG005842 NIA NIH HHS United States
P01-AG005842-20S2 NIA NIH HHS United States
P30 AG012810 NIA NIH HHS United States
P30-AG012810 NIA NIH HHS United States
R01 AG042568 NIA NIH HHS United States
R01-AG042568 NIA NIH HHS United States
T32-AG000186-23 NIA NIH HHS United States
GENERAL NOTE
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