Genetic Epidemiology, Psychiatric Genetics, Asthma Genetics and Statistical Genetics Laboratories investigate the pattern of disease in families, particularly identical and non-identical twins, to assess the relative importance of genes and environment in a variety of important health problems.
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PMID
16273319
TITLE
Opposite effects of androgen receptor CAG repeat length on increased risk of left-handedness in males and females.
ABSTRACT
Prenatal exposure to testosterone has been hypothesised to effect lateralization by influencing cell death in the foetal brain. Testosterone binds to the X chromosome linked androgen receptor, which contains a polymorphic polyglutamine CAG repeat, the length of which is positively correlated with testosterone levels in males, and negatively correlated in females. To determine whether the length of the androgen receptor mediates the effects of testosterone on laterality, we examined the association between the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene and handedness for writing. Association was tested by adding regression terms for the length of the androgen receptor alleles to a multi-factorial-threshold model of liability to left-handedness. In females we found the risk of left-handedness was greater in those with a greater number of repeats (p=0.04), this finding was replicated in a second independent sample of female twins (p=0.014). The length of the androgen receptor explained 6% of the total variance and 24% of the genetic variance in females. In males the risk of left-handedness was greater in those with fewer repeats (p=0.02), with variation in receptor length explaining 10% of the total variance and 24% of the genetic variance. Thus, consistent with Witelson's theory of testosterone action, in all three samples the likelihood of left handedness increased in those individuals with variants of the androgen receptor associated with lower testosterone levels.
DATE PUBLISHED
2005 Nov
HISTORY
PUBSTATUS PUBSTATUSDATE
received 2004/09/03
accepted 2005/06/01
pubmed 2005/11/08 09:00
medline 2006/03/29 09:00
entrez 2005/11/08 09:00
AUTHORS
NAME COLLECTIVENAME LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION AFFILIATIONINFO
Medland SE Medland Sarah E SE Queensland Institute of Medical Research, PO Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane 4029, Australia. sarahMe@qimr.edu.au
Duffy DL Duffy David L DL
Spurdle AB Spurdle Amanda B AB
Wright MJ Wright Margaret J MJ
Geffen GM Geffen Gina M GM
Montgomery GW Montgomery Grant W GW
Martin NG Martin Nicholas G NG
INVESTIGATORS
JOURNAL
VOLUME: 35
ISSUE: 6
TITLE: Behavior genetics
ISOABBREVIATION: Behav. Genet.
YEAR: 2005
MONTH: Nov
DAY:
MEDLINEDATE:
SEASON:
CITEDMEDIUM: Print
ISSN: 0001-8244
ISSNTYPE: Print
MEDLINE JOURNAL
MEDLINETA: Behav Genet
COUNTRY: United States
ISSNLINKING: 0001-8244
NLMUNIQUEID: 0251711
PUBLICATION TYPE
PUBLICATIONTYPE TEXT
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
COMMENTS AND CORRECTIONS
GRANTS
GENERAL NOTE
KEYWORDS
MESH HEADINGS
DESCRIPTORNAME QUALIFIERNAME
Adult
Chromosome Mapping
Chromosomes, Human, X
Female
Functional Laterality genetics
Humans genetics
Likelihood Functions genetics
Male genetics
Receptors, Androgen genetics
Risk Factors genetics
Testosterone metabolism
Trinucleotide Repeats metabolism
Twin Studies as Topic metabolism
SUPPLEMENTARY MESH
GENE SYMBOLS
CHEMICALS
REGISTRYNUMBER NAMEOFSUBSTANCE
0 Receptors, Androgen
3XMK78S47O Testosterone
OTHER ID's